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Nintendo Wii U Emulator

Nintendo's Wii U is considered the best video game console despite the fact that there are other video game consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 4 and Microsoft's Xbox One, but the Wii U beat them all in terms of HD graphics and easy to control GamePad that acts as its primary controller. The Wii U GamePad is used as a directional, action buttons, and a touchscreen.

However, the Wii U received criticism in several areas, including the GamePad's battery life and issues with the console's user interface and functionality, along with a weak lineup of launch titles and a lack of clear vision, these led to low sales primarily and for that reason Wii U production officially ended in 2017 then Nintendo Switch took place as its successor.

Note that the discontinuation of Wii U doesn't mean you can't play Wii u games, and you should also have it in mind that the above information is just a brief summary of how the Wii U into existence. So if you want to play all Wii U games on PC without the original Wii U Emulator, then download any of the two emulators below.

1. Cemu - Wii U Emulator for Windows

Cemu is one of the best emulators commonly used on Windows operating system with abilities to run high definitive games without any interruption. To play Wii U games like Super Mario Bros and Mario Kart 8, The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, you will need a decent PC gaming system to use Cemu at playable speeds. This emulator support manual configuration which you have to tweak as per your system for maximum FPS and good graphics.

Download Cemu 1.11.0.

2. Decaf - GameCube/Wii U Emulator for PC

Decaf is one of the original and best Nintendo Wii U emulator for PC and Linux to play all Nintendo Wii U games smoothly on Windows PC. It runs a lot of games, but depending on the power of your computer  all may not run at full speed. With Decaf you can easily enjoy all stories behind classic retro video games such as GoldenEye, Starfox 64, the Star Wars, video game series and the Mario series as well as other exclusive hit titles.

Download Decaf Emulator

If you are looking for ways to play all Nintendo Wii U games on PC without spending a penny, then using an emulator is all you need to do. Download any of the recommended best Wii U emulator of all time above and enjoy all your favorite games smoothly on PC. 
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Hi everyone, welcome to our comprehensive update on Teamwork in Business. If you are interested in a detailed article about what is teamwork, benefits of teamwork, then you have stumbled on the right post here. In this post, you would get all the necessary steps needed to building teamwork in business.

But before we bag into giving you these steps let's briefly explain what a teamwork means and its benefits.

What Is a Team? How Does Teamwork Work? 

A team (business team or a work team) is a group of people with complementary skills who work together to achieve a specific goal. In the case of Motorola’s RAZR team, the specific goal was to develop (and ultimately bring to market) an ultrathin cell phone that would help restore the luster to Motorola’s tarnished image.

It wasn’t supposed to set sales records, and sales in the fourth quarter of 2004, though promising, were in fact fairly modest. Back in September, however, a new executive named Ron Garriques had taken over Motorola’s cell phone division; one of his first decisions was to raise the bar for RAZR. Disregarding a 2005 budget that called for sales of two million units, Garrigues pushed expected sales for the RAZR up to twenty million.

The RAZR topped that target, shipped ten million in the first quarter of 2006, and hit the fifty-million mark at midyear. Talking on a RAZR, declared hip-hop star Sean “P. Diddy” Combs, “is like driving a Mercedes versus a regular ol’ ride.

Jellicoe and his team were invited to attend an event hosted by top executives, receiving a standing ovation, along with a load of stock options. One of the reasons for the RAZR’s success, said Jellicoe, was that “It took the world by surprise. Very few Motorola products do that.” For a while, the new RAZR was the best-selling phone in the world.

The Team and the Organization

Below are Some Key Characteristics of  business Teams. To put teams in perspective, let’s identify five key characteristics of Teamwork:

1) Share accountability for achieving specific common goals 
2) Function interdependently 
3) Require stability 
4) Hold authority and decision-making power 
5) Operate in a social context.

Benefits of teamwork

Why Organizations Build Teams

Why do major organizations now rely so much on teams to improve operations? Executives at Xerox have reported that team-based operations are 30 percent more productive than conventional operations. General Mills says that factories organized around team activities are 40 percent more productive than traditionally organized factories. FedEx says that teams reduced service errors (lost packages, incorrect bills) by 13 percent in the first year and this why teamwork is so important in an organization.

Self-Managing Teams 

Self-managing teams (also known as self-directed teams) have considerable autonomy. They are usually small and often absorb activities that were once performed by traditional supervisors. A manager or team leader may determine overall goals, but the members of the self-managing team control the activities needed to achieve those goals.

Self-managing teams are the organizational hallmark of Whole Foods Market, the largest natural-foods grocer in the United States. Each store is run by ten departmental teams, and virtually every store employee is a member of a team. Each team has a designated leader and its own performance targets. (Team leaders also belong to a store team, and store-team leaders belong to a regional team.) To do its job, every team has access to the kind of information—including sales and even salary figures—that most companies reserve for traditional managers.

Not every self-managed team enjoys the same degree of autonomy. Companies vary widely in choosing which tasks teams are allowed to manage and which ones are best left to upper-level management only. Let's have a look at this, for example, self-managing teams are often allowed to schedule assignments, but they are rarely allowed to fire coworkers.

Why is it good to work in a team?

Now that we know a little bit about how teams work, we need to ask ourselves why they work. Not surprisingly, this is a fairly complex issue. In this section, we’ll explore why teams are often effective and when they ineffective.

Factors in Effective Teamwork 

First, let’s begin by identifying several factors that contribute to effective teamwork. Teams are most effective when the following factors are met: 
 Members depend on each other. When team members rely on each other to get the job done, team productivity and efficiency tend to be high.

Members trust one another

Members work well together than individually. When team members perform better as a group than alone, collective performance exceeds individual performance. 

Members become boosters

When each member is encouraged by other team members to do his or her best, collective results improve. 
 Team members enjoy being on the team. 
 Leadership rotates. 

Some of these factors may seem intuitive. Because such issues are rarely clear-cut, we need to examine the issue of group effectiveness from another perspective—one that considers the effects of factors that aren’t quite so straightforward. 

Group Cohesiveness

The idea of group cohesiveness refers to the attractiveness of a team to its members. If a group is high in cohesiveness, membership is quite satisfying to its members. If it’s low in cohesiveness, members are unhappy with it and may try to leave it.

Groupthink 

It’s easy for leaders to direct members toward team goals when members are all on the same page—when there’s a basic willingness to conform to the team’s rules. When there’s too much conformity, however, the group can become ineffective: it may resist fresh ideas and, what’s worse, may end up adopting its own dysfunctional tendencies as its way of doing things. Such tendencies may also encourage a phenomenon known as groupthink—the tendency to conform to group pressure in making decisions while failing to think critically or to consider outside influences.

Other Factors that Erode Performance 

Let’s take a quick look at three other obstacles to success in introducing teams into an organization:

Unwillingness to cooperate: Failure to cooperate can occur when members don’t or won’t commit to a common goal or set of activities. What if, for example, half the members of a product-development team want to create a brand-new product and half want to improve an existing product? The entire team may get stuck on this point of contention for weeks or even months. Lack of cooperation between teams can also be problematic to an organization.

Lack of managerial support: Every team requires organizational resources to achieve its goals, and if management isn’t willing to commit the needed resources— say, funding or key personnel—a team will probably fall short of those goals. 

“Life Is All about Group Work” 
“I’ll work extra hard and do it myself, but please don’t make me have to work in a group.”

Like it or not, you’ve probably already notice that you’ll have team-based assignments in college. More than two-thirds of all students report having participated in the work of an organized team, and if you’re in business school, you will almost certainly find yourself engaged in team-based activities.

Why do we put so much emphasis on something that, reportedly, makes many students feel anxious and academically drained? Here’s one college student’s practical-minded answer to this question: 

“In the real world, you have to work with people. You don’t always know the people you work with, and you don’t always get along with them. Your boss won’t particularly care, and if you can’t get the job done, your job may end up on the line. Life is all about group work, whether we like it or not. And school, in many ways, prepares us for life, including working with others.

She’s right. In placing so much emphasis on teamwork skills and experience, business colleges are doing the responsible thing—preparing students for the business world. A survey of Fortune 1000 companies reveals that 79 percent use self-managing teams and 91 percent use other forms of employee work groups.

What Skills Does the Team Need? 

Sometimes we hear about a sports team made up of mostly average players who win a championship because of coaching genius, flawless teamwork, and superhuman determination. But not terribly often. In fact, we usually hear about such teams simply because they’re newsworthy—exceptions to the rule.

 Typically a team performs well because its members possess some level of talent. Members’ talents must also be managed in a collective effort to achieve a common goal.

In the final analysis, a team can succeed only if its members provide the skills that need managing. In particular, every team requires some mixture of three sets of skills:

Technical skills. Because business teams must perform certain tasks, they need people with the skills to perform them. For example, if your project calls for a lot of math 

What Roles Do Team Members Play? 

As a student and later in the workplace, you’ll be a member of a team more often than a leader. Team members can have as much impact on a team’s success as its leaders. A key is the quality of the contributions they make in performing non-leadership roles.

What exactly are those roles?

At this point, you’ve probably concluded that every team faces two basic challenges: 
1) Accomplishing its assigned task 
2) Maintaining or improving group cohesiveness 

Whether you affect the team’s work positively or negatively depends on the extent to which you help it or hinder it in meeting these two challenges. We can thus divide teamwork roles into two categories, depending on which of these two challenges each role addresses. These two categories (task-facilitating roles and relationship-building roles) are summarized here:

Finally, a few characteristics of another kind of team-membership role. So-called blocking roles consist of behavior that inhibits either team performance or that of individual members. Every member of the team should know how to recognize blocking behavior. If teams don’t confront dysfunctional members, they can destroy morale, hamper consensus building, create conflict, and hinder progress.

So there you have it, teamwork strategies and benefits of teamwork to help maximize your ability to work in a team or even in the workplace. If you’ve had success with any of these please feel free to share your results in the comments section.
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Are you searching for free movies download websites to download all your favorite movies and TV shows on your mobile phone or PC? There's is no need to panic, because on this post you would get all the list of top free movies download websites that will provide you with tons of high-quality free movies series, drama, and TV shows in a well-compressed size for all devices.


Playing our favorite movie series without paying a dime can be fun either on Windows PC or smartphone but the question remains: what are the best free movies download sites?

If you are a movie series addict and you want to download the most recent series of the movie on your android phone and PC, then you should check out my list of top 15 free movies download websites for mobile phones and PCs. One of these sites may turn out to be a great source of your free movie downloads. Hence below are the best free movies download websites without registration and I can assure you that  the list below would definitely make you forget about using movies download app on your phone before downloading any movie.

1. YTS Movies


YTS is quite popular for its user-friendly interface and loads of updated quality HD movies. A huge number of people use it to get download any movie they wish and I’m sure you are going to join them after reading this post because I know you have been searching for free movies download sites and that's why you are here. Its movies boast of giving you the all-time best HD movies at the smallest file size for free including titles that are still running in the theaters for you to download without spending a dime. YTS movies have a lot of interesting movie series for both Android device son PC. At the bottom of this post, I'm going to show you how to download movies from yts movies official website using the uTorrent client.

Visit YTS.AG to get all yify movies 2017/2018 free download.

2. Urgrove
The second one in the list is Urgrove which is another website to download the latest Hollywood and Bollywood films. URGrove offers best free Movies and has a good user interface. Urgrove movies free movie download allows you to enjoy daily HD quality videos on your screen without going to the movie theater. When you have a look at the interface of the website then you will surely like it and make it one of your favorite just like me.

3. Wordfree4u


Wordfree4u is a popular site to download free highly-rated free movies in 300mb size. On this website, you can get all HD movies downloads for mobile phones, tablets or PC. WordWordfree4u supports downloading of movies in various languages like English, Hindi, Tamil, Telegu movies all in HD, Bluray, MKV HD, 3GP, MP4 and in different resolutions with just a simple click. This site also comes with different movie's categories which includes Bengali Movies 720p, Bollywood 300mb movies, English TV shows, Bollywood 1080p movies, Cartoon & Animated 300mb, Hindi TV shows, Punjabi movies 720p, Telugu movies 1080/720p, Marathi movies, Dual audio 1080p movies etc to help users download/watch any movie they like easily. Visit today and get the best quality HD worldfree4u 300mb movies for android and iOS mobiles.

Visit Worldfree4u

4.Hdmoviespoint

Hdmoviespoint

As the name implies, Hdmoviespoint is among the top list of free HD movie download sites in the US and another part of the world. It has an excellent collection of latest movies and TV shows. Hdmoviespoint is also another great website where you can easily download all Hollywood movies and Bollywood movies in 720p HD movies and 1080p HD movies offered in different categories for free. You don't need to register or providing your credit card number to download movies from HD movies point.

Go to Hdmoviespoint

How To Download Movies From HD Movies Point (The Easiest Method)

Downloading movie from hdmoviespoint.com doesn't require any trick, it's very simple and easy, visit the website and click on any movie you want to download, click on “Download” button below the movie description and this would take you to downloading page where you will have to wait for about 0.15 seconds for download to automatically start.

hdmoviespoint.com

That's all on how to download movies from hdmoviespoint.

5. Mydownloadtube


Mydownloadtube is one of the curated lists of my best free sites to download/watch movies with subtitles in 720P, 1080P Blu-ray 📀. This website does a regular update to get a great collection of Hollywood movies for free downloads. Mydownloadtube allows users (you) to download full-length HD Hollywood season episodes within a single click, this cool website is among the list of my best movie downloading sites because it has lots of new 2018 movies series and episodes that are legally free to download. However, to get all the latest blockbusters series d in a well-compressed size with good quality, Visit Mydownloadtube.com.

6. Housemovie.to

Housemovie.to

When we talk about websites to stream free movies online legally housemovie also top the of good free streaming websites where you can watch free movies online with best sound quality. On the housemovie.to you have whole lot of free movies submitted by different sources to stream without downloading them to your phone or PC.

If you like to watch full movies online then the house movie free stream is the best choice for you to conveniently watch the latest movies in 2018 in HD quality without registration.

7. Moviewatcher


Moviewatcher.io is among the welcomed movies and TV series watch/download sites that allows users to browse the latest published free HD movies for free. On moviewatcher, you would get all the latest DVDrip, BRrip, HDrip in small size high-quality mkv format and in resumable links (Bollywood/Nollywood movies).


8. MovieFlixter

Movieflixter

Movieflixter.to is a combination of video streaming and downloading website for android, windows, iPhone, and iPad. On movieflixter, you can watch and download the most recent released HD full movies online for free without registration.

Visit Movieflixter

9. Solarmovie


SolarMovies is one of top 15 free movie download websites where you can download movies for free and legally, this site also provides users a quick channel to get some quality entertainment without spending a penny.

Go to Solarmovies and enjoy all the solarmovie TV shows on a mobile phone for free!

10. Gomovies

Gomovies

On this super HD movie site (Gomovies), you can find the latest seasonal movies, Bollywood/Nollywood, and Hindi movies. You can also download HD DVD ripped in high quality. Moreover, Gomovies.to doesn't only hosts English movies but includes Japanese Anime, Korean, Chinese, and Taiwan TV-series in different categories like Top IMDb, action, thriller, history, and drama from other countries.

11. 123Movies

123movies free movies unblocked

123movies.fun is a multi-category movie site which also covers latest Hollywood blockbusters & free movies series. Streaming various movie episodes in 720p 1080p HD - BluRay on this video hosting site without spending a penny got easier. A wide selection of free online movies is available on 123movies for you to watch and download for free without Registration. To download movies from 123movies, click on the video, you will be provided with two options which are Watch online and Download in HD now tap on any options you wish to go with and your download process will commence immediately.

12. Watch movies free


Watchmoviesfree.us is the ultimate portal that curates unlimited high-quality movie series where you can download movies and TV shows like a black panther, Fifty Shades Freed, Tomb Raider and other top rated Bollywood/Hollywood movies for free. It grades each movie and classifies them. Watch movies free is my another favorite movie downloading site as it offers services like watch new movies, serials 2018 online free without downloading and no sign-up.

13. Gofilms4u.net

Gofilms4u Tamil

On Gofilms4u users can easily discover free movie series and TV shows by genre, popularity​, country, release date and length of the movie. The site curates the list of most recent Bollywood movies, Hindi dubbed Hollywood movies, Punjabi movies, and the popular Hindi TV shows and you can stream them online without downloading. Also, there's an option to download movies in HD, DVDRip, WebRip, and CAM quality to your computer or mobile phone.

This site also curates movies from best movie sites in the following countries:

Countries list

Gofilms4u also brings featured movie episodes alongside a sorting and filter options in its movie library for easy navigation.

14. YouTube

YouTube movies

YouTube.com is also a movie download site that offers a large amount of HD quality videos from across the globe. I don't need to do further explanation because we all know what YouTube offers. In short; YouTube is the best site to watch and download all new American war movies and top-rated video from best movie sites on your computer or mobile device.

15. HD Popcorns


If you are looking for a free full-length HD movie download sites or an alternative or sites like Netflix, then hdpopcorns should be your go to. Hdpopcorns.com is also one of the best movie sites to download full HD 1080p Hollywood movies for free, this site does not only provides the latest 1080p HD movies, but also you can get 720p movies, Bollywood movies in all categories like action, adventure, and animation. Downloading videos from HD popcorns website is very easy.

Final Words
So these are the best websites to download full-length movies Episodes free in 2018 and beyond without any sign-up or registration. Do you enjoy reading my list? Do leave your comments below.
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Are you interested in articles about marketing strategy? this post contains all the necessary details of the biggest marketing strategies to apply in business for 2018 and beyond.

Marketing Strategy

The survival of any business depends on the proper determination of strategy which involves the general situation pertaining to the business as a whole & decides upon necessary changes of fundamental nature.

What is Marketing Strategy?

According to Philip Kotler, marketing strategy is a consistent, appropriate feasible set of principles through which a particular business hopes to achieve its long-run customer profit objectives in a particularly competitive environment.

The marketing function is very important in any business because it is a function that generates income for the business to grow and move forward.

Therefore, It is essential for entrepreneurs (businessmen) to give it an appropriate attention. It's important for entrepreneurs to understand the basic objective of marketing, what it is and how it can be applied in business effectively.

Unfortunately, business managers & entrepreneurs are often ignorant of the importance of such strategic planning and thereby resort to guessing works.

It is therefore imperative for an entrepreneurial firm to define from the start its type of business & the market it wants to satisfy.

A business may decide to go for either the mass or niche marketing strategy in selecting its target market.

Mass targeted marketing strategy is a situation where all potential customers in a product-market are assumed to be sufficiently similar in their response to a marketing program positioning strategy.

Whereas in niche targeted marketing strategy, the firm assumes that people or organizations within a product market vary in the area of their response to any marketing program positioning strategy.

A niche strategy can be implemented by going after a single niche or by designing a separate marketing program for each of two or more niches.

The niche strategy can afford a business with the opportunity to greatly increase profitability & strength over the competition through the more effective use of the capabilities & limited resources.

Marketing strategy is therefore concerned with the identification of customer groups (target markets), which a business can serve better than its target competitors, and tailoring its product

offerings, prices, distribution, promotional efforts & services towards that particular market segment.

The main focus of applying strategies in business is to address customer needs which are not being currently met in the marketplace.

A good strategy implies that a business cannot be all things to all people and must analyze its market alongside its own capabilities so as to focus on a target market it can serve better.

Side Note! The following steps should be followed when trying to communicate with your target market/niche:
  • Set the objectives of promotion (Advertisement)
  • Decide on the audience 
  • Decide what to tell the target audience 
  • Draw up a budget 
  • Implement and measure results.
Advertisement: Advertisement is a key part of the marketing process and it is a tool for promotion. The purpose of advertising is to make potential buyers and existing customers respond positively to a business and/or its product or service.

Essentially, it informs, persuades and reminds the target audience of the product or service and helps to create awareness and loyalty. 

Advertising is the paid and impersonal attempt by an identifiable sponsor to provide the most persuasive message to the right prospects through mass media at the lowest possible cost.

Importance of Advertisement

Advertising serves the following purposes:
  1. To inform the target market of a business 
  2. To attract attention to a new business, its product or service
  3. To announce a special offer 
  4. To reinforce the work of the sales team 
  5. To remind customers of the offering 
  6. To persuade customers to “buy now”
  7. To maintain and increase demand for well-known products.
Advertising is one of the major marketing strategies so for it to work it must be done through the right media. Advertising media are the channels through which advertising messages are transmitted to the target markets. The following are the examples of advertising media:
  • Radio 
  • Television 
  • Newspaper 
  • Magazine 
  • Direct mail 
  • Outdoor 
  • Yellow pages 
  • Telephone 
  • Internet, etc.
In choosing the right medium or social media platform to use, the following factors should be considered:
  • The geographic consideration of target markets 
  • Demographic and psychographic description of the target market 
  • Costs
  • The nature of the product 
  • The frequency of messages.
Sales Promotion: Sales promotion is promotional techniques that are neither personal sell nor advertising. Sales promotion consist of the inactive tool, mostly short-term, that is designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers.

Whereas advertising offers a reason to buy, sales promotion offers an coupons, premiums, price deals, rebates, free trials, warranties, and demonstration.

Personal Selling: Personal selling is one-on-one communication between the business and a customer so as to convince the customer to buy. For personal selling to be effective, the sales-person must find out the needs of the customer and match the goods and services of the business to those customer needs for the mutual benefits of both parties.

Publicity: Publicity is information about a business, its products or services that appear as a news item. Publicity is not usually paid for by the business. It can be done through other methods such as press release, sponsorships, events, publications, speeches, etc.

Place (or Distribution): Place or distribution is very important in business. No matter how good is your product and how affordable is its price, without distraction it will be a useless effort. No wonder in economics, production is said to be incomplete until goods and services get to the final consumers. Distribution is concerned with getting your products or services to the target market. It is the establishment of a system that gets your products to where the consumers want to buy them.

There are different ways you can get your product to your customers and these different is ways are called Channel of Distribution. A channel of distribution is a system of pot organizations that get goods or services from the producer to the consumer. As a producer, you can decide to sell your products or services directly to your customers or pass through the wholesalers and retailers.

The following channels are available for you to choose from:
  1. Producer to consumer 
  2. Producer t ==> retailer ==> consumer
  3. Producer  ==> wholesaler ==> retailer and to the consumer 
  4. Producer ==> agent ==> retail ==> consumer
  5. Producer ==> agent ==> wholesaler ==> retailer ==> consumer.
Note that some products need a fairly short distribution channel while others need a long distribution channel but your decision to adopt a particular channel depends on the following factors:
  • Your customers i.e. your target market: This includes their location, their number, their preferences, etc. 
  • Your product: The Consider whether your products are expensive, bulky, made to customer's specification, go out fashion, need specialized services, have a short lifespan, etc. 
  • Your own resources should you want to distribute the products yourself.
  • Your competitors, the channel they use and their possible reactions to your choice of channel.
  • Environmental factors such as the economic, legal, technical factors.
If you followed above Marketing Strategies, then be sure to keep 90% of your targeted buyers to your business and get repeat products and services demand as well.

Make sure you share with others and leave your opinions using the comment box.
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Need quick tips on how to get best PSP games for PPSSPP emulator on Android and PC then you are in the right post. If you are looking for a site to download high-quality graphics PSP games for free with fast game speed as on the original PlayStation Portable console then this post is for you!

Best PSP games for Android

I am not a gamer but I decided to write this post as an answer for those who asked: What are some of the best PSP games of all time?

On this post am going to share some best PSP games that work at high definition with extra features on Android. Don't get it twisted. I mean to say: you are going to get the list of all games that run well on ppsspp android emulator.

This PSP games list would help you to easily identify which are the best PSP games of all time for PPSSPP emulator on Android and PC. So if you are confused about what are the BEST PPSSPP GAMES FOR ANDROID to play, here's a list of top PSP games to download for PPSSPP Emulator on Android and PC, play on Android device.

Best Website To Download PSP Games For Android

In our previous post, we've discussed some of the best sites that you can download best PSP games and also find tons of NDS ROMs, PS2 ISOs and other. So, if you are among those who are looking for the best site to download PSP games for free I believe reading my recent article on best site to download PSP games for Android phones would give you the list of top PSP ROM sites that has been proved to be the best and biggest retro gaming website in the world where everyone can download their favorite PSP games/ISOs and play it on their Android phones smoothly.

On this list of highly compressed 25 all-time Best PSP Games List, I am going to unveil the best PSP games that comes with high graphics and best sound quality to make game-play more interesting while playing those games we loved. Most of this game works flawlessly both on higher and low-end Android smartphones. Now let's check out 20 of the best PSP games of all time that you can play on your Android.

List of All Time Best PPSSPP Games For Android

1. Tekken 6
2. Dragon Ball Z Shin Budokai: Another Road
3. Naruto Shippūnden Ultimate Ninja Storm
4. Call of Duty: Road to victory 
5. Burnout Legends 
6. Ghost Rider 
7. Assassin's Creed: Bloodlines 
8. Dragon Ball Z: Tenkaichi Tag Team
9. God of War: Ghost of Sparta 
10. Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories
11. Patapon 3 
12. Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker
13. Daxer 
14. Lumines: Puzzle Fusion
15. Final Fantasy Tactics: The War of The Lions
16. God of War: Chains of Olympus 
17. Grand Theft Auto: Chain Town Wars
18. Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops
19. Virtua Tennis: World Tour
20. FIFA Soccer 09/10
21. WWE SmackDown Vs Raw 2016 and beyond
22. Godfather: Mob War
23. Power Stone
24. Need for Speed: Fast and Furious.

How to Download PPSSPP Games On Android Phone

Note that our main purpose here is to guide/give you a list of best PSP games and the best sites to download them to your android phone.
You should also note that the list of games above is not provided to encourage piracy nor copyright of the game copies without permission, It is always advisable to download game files from the official sources or Use your own real PSP games and turn them into.ISO or .CSO files.
To avoid copyright issues, that's why we couldn't include the direct download link for the PSP ROM ISO files. So to download any of the above games list is very simple, just go to coolrom or emuparadise.me ==> Click on ROMs, ISOs, $ Games in the site's Quick links and use the search box of the site by copying the name of any above games and paste it in the emuparadise's search box and hit enter or tap on the search button.

Emuparadise PSP games for emulator

How to Play PPSSPP Games On Android Phone

To Play top PSP games smoothly on your Android device the original PPSSPP which is the best PSP emulator for Android is all you need. You would enjoy playing tons of games on the latest PPSSPP emulator on and windows PC at high definition with extra features!

Normally, most of the PPSSPP games comes in a zip file, Once you have downloaded any of your favorite game use any zip file reader on your smartphone to extract and move the ISO file to /PSP/GAME on your SD card / USB storage. Lunch the app and select the game you want to play.

Now you're set to play all HD PSP games with normal features just as on other game consoles, Happy gaming!
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If you want to write a cover letter for Job application easily and fast, then you need to learn how to write an amazing cover letter to get you rids off disapproval.

how to write a cover letter with examples

Today’s applicants are worried about writing a good cover letter since employees are no longer satisfied with the old methods or formats of cover letters.

In this article, I am going to show you all on how to significantly write an amazing cover letter that can generally get you a job! Cover letter is the most important thing while searching/applying for a job vacancy in any organization because it describe your capability, potentials and what you are best in doing.

What am I trying to say here? The more work and present your cover letter, the higher possibility to get your job Application Approved.

That is why most of the Applicants are always asking about what should be included in a cover letter content, formatting guides for a successful cover letter writing. But before we go ahead, let me give you the highlight of what a cover letter is.

What is a cover letter?

Cover letter is a document sent with your resume to provide additional information on your skills and experience. A cover letter typically provides a detailed information on why you are qualified for the job you are applying for.

A cover letter should complement, not duplicate your resume. Its purpose is to interpret the data-oriented, factual resume and add a personal touch.

A cover letter is often your earliest written contact with a potential employer, creating a critical first impression.

There are three general types of cover letters:

• The application letter which responds to a known job opening.

• The prospecting, unsolicited letter of enquiry which asks about possible positions.

• The networking letter which requests information and assistance in your job search.

Your cover letter should be designed specifically for each purpose outlined above as well as for each position you seek. Do not design a standardized letter and send it to every potential employer (you know what you do with junk mail!).


KEY AREAS FOR COVER LETTER WRITING

• What position are you applying for?

• How did you learn of the position or company? What do you know about the company?

• Why are you perfect for the position? What sets you apart from the crowd?

• Who will contact who?

• Request a meeting or personal interview.

• Mention that you will contact them to schedule a personal meeting.

• Explain how they can reach you.

• Thank them for taking the time to consider your application.

Cover Letter Writing Tips

Customize to Fit

Take the time to customize your cover letter to fit the employer’s requirements. Before you start writing, review the criteria for the position and make a list of what the employer wants.

This list might include specific areas of expertise, years of experience, technical knowledge, transferable skills and personality traits.

Then, incorporate these items into your letter, demonstrating, by giving examples from a previous job perhaps, that you have the desired qualifications.

Meet the Employer’s Needs

Write the cover letter with the employer’s needs in mind, not your own. Don’t describe what you want, but explain what you can do for the employer. 

Don’t assume that the employer will read between the lines of your resume and dig out the relevant information.

They won’t. To get their attention, you have to actively describe how you can meet their needs.

Actively Sell Yourself

State why you should be hired. Be assertive about your qualifications and assure the employer of your capabilities.

Use e-mail for cover letters

Keep your cover letter short and include it in the email message. Don’t send as an attachment unless the employer specifically requests one.


Keep it Simple

Get straight to the point and write short, targeted letters. Each letter should be one page, or less. Each paragraph should contain three or four sentences, at most.


Keep Copies

Keep copies of all your cover letters, so you know what you sent to whom.

Cover Letter Quick Guide

Date

Contact’s Name

Contact’s Title

Organization Name

P.O. Box, Dubai

<United Arab Emirates

Dear Mr. /Mrs. /Ms. (person’s last name only),

Ref. Application for the position of [Give job title and reference number, if any.]

Paragraph #1: State immediately the position you are pursuing and how you came to know of the opening [e.g. newspaper, giving date, website etc.]. 

If you have an alumnus, family or other contact in the organization, you can mention that here as well. 

Tell the employer briefly (one or two sentences) why you are interested in this position.

Paragraph #2: Highlight the skills and experiences you have that would make you successful in the position. 

For example, if you are a new graduate with limited experience, talk about classes you have taken, activities you have been involved in, summer experiences you have had. 

You do not have to have directly related experience, but think about the skills you have gained from what you have done and how those could relate to the duties of the position you are applying for. [Make the links for the employer]. 

You do not want to repeat your resume to the employer in this paragraph, but this is the place to highlight relevant accomplishments that will make the reader want to learn more, and which in turn will lead them to your resume. 

The goal is to show the employer that you have confidence in your ability to succeed in the position.

Paragraph #3: Demonstrate that you have done some research about this organization. Go to their website and talk to alumni or other contacts that may currently work for the organization. 

This research does not have to be extensive, but it shows that you have taken some time to think about this position and put some effort into this letter. 

This makes a very good impression on employers. It shows that this is not a standard letter, where only the address and contact name is changed for each position.

Paragraph #4: State that you would welcome a personal interview to further discuss this opportunity. 
If you need to explain anything out of the ordinary on your resume, this is the place to do it. You might mention that if you do not hear anything from the potential employer in two to three weeks’ time, you will call to follow up this letter to see where they are in their process. 

Finish by thanking them for their attention and express a desire to meet them sometime in the near future.

Sincerely,

Your signature (leave 4 blank spaces for this)

Your name in print.

Am sure by now you know how to write an amazing cover letter for an internship

I know how it feels when you can't come up with an idea to write a Detailed but yet a simple cover letter for resume by yourself and that is why I put up this good cover letter examples to help you!

Thanks for reading, feel free to comment if you have any question.
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Excel is a widespread tool used in public finance offices. Using Excel functions, tools, and various shortcuts not only expedites the time it takes to perform analyses, but can also create outputs that are more dynamic and engaging to stakeholders. GFOA’s Excel webinar, “Excel for Budget Analysis,” provides a more detailed demonstration and application of pivot tables, graphs, debt calculations, and scenario analysis and this guide serves as a supplement to additional Excel features that can help users within the finance office.

GFOA compiled this list of functions and shortcuts with the assistance of member and instructors’ feedback and staff research.

While this guide does not offer a comprehensive list of all the features within Excel, it does include some of the ones commonly used by Excel users within the public finance office. For comprehensive explanation on all excel formulas follow this link.

Excel Functions and Formulas

It is important that we make a distinction regarding formulas and functions for the purposes of Excel.

Formulas are mathematical equations used to perform calculations in an Excel worksheet or workbook.

Excel Functions are predefined formulas that perform calculations in an Excel worksheet or workbook.

Both need to be written in a specific way, which is called the syntax, in order to calculate properly. Both also need at least one argument, which on the most basic level identifies the values for which to perform the action.

For formulas, the basic syntax is equal (=), function name (AVERAGE, in the example below), and argument.

=AVERAGE (A1:A28)

For functions, the basic syntax is equal (=), function name (ROUND, in the example below), argument, and argument tooltip, which is an additional action to perform (2, in the example below represents 2 digits).

=ROUND (A1, 2)

Excel offers hundreds of functions and categorize them based on their functionality. This guide will cover only a small portion of the functions, including math and trigonometry, statistical, date and time, lookup and reference, text, and logical functions. To learn more about the various categories, please reference the Microsoft Office Support page on Excel functions (by category).

Commonly Used Excel Functions

Math and Trigonometry Functions

Several math functions can help expedite analysis. This section highlights on a few.

ABS
When there is a need to get the absolute value of a number, the ABS function is helpful.

ROUND, ROUNDUP, and ROUNDDOWN

There are various options with rounding, depending on the need. The functions’ argument tooltip specifies how many decimal places or to which nearest integer it should round.

ROUND – This function helps users to round to the nearest value.

ROUNDDOWN – This function helps users to round values down to the nearest value based on the desired decimal place or integer.

ROUNDUP - This function helps users to round values up to the nearest value based on the desired decimal place or integer.

Excel Statistical Functions

When presented with large datasets, it is helpful to sort and summarize the information at hand.

COUNT, COUNTA, and COUNTBLANK FUNCTIONS

The counting functions are especially helpful with large datasets to identify anomalies and to get general summary statistics.
  • COUNT – This function counts the number of cells that contain numbers.
  • COUNTA – This function counts cells containing any type of information, including error values and empty text (as shown in the example below, it counts the cell marked “VOID”).
  • COUNTBLANK – This function counts only the empty cells within the dataset, with no information contained in the cells.
 These are some of most important functions for a startup business person to know in Excel.

AVERAGE, MEDIAN, MIN, and MAX FUNCTIONS

With large datasets, it is often helpful to run basic summary statistics before doing further analysis.
  • AVERAGE – This function calculates the average value in a dataset.
  • MEDIAN – This function calculates the median, middle value, in a dataset.
  • MIN – This function returns the lowest value in a dataset.
  • MAX – This function returns the largest value in a dataset.
QUARTILE

The quartile function helps users to understand the distribution of values. The first argument identifies the values or cells that users want to calculate and the argument tooltip identifies which quartile (0 – minimum value; 1 – first quartile or 25th percentile; 2 – median value or 50th percentile; 3 – third quartile or 75th percentile; and 4 – maximum value). Quartile is also one of the most Used Excel Functions you may not know about.

AND RANDBETWEEN

This function is helpful when needing to create random values. Note that the random values Excel generates will recalculate as the fields are altered.
  • RAND – This function generates a random value between 0 and 1.
  • RANDBETWEEN – This function generates a random value between a specified ranges of values.

Date and Time Functions

Sometimes when we export data from a database system, the date does not extract as neatly. Other times, we are looking to calculate the duration from one date to another.

DATE

This function is useful when information related to year, month, and date are in separate cells and the preference is to have the date in one cell.

Excel date formulas examples

YEAR, MONTH, and DAY Functions 

These functions are helpful to capture the appropriate piece of information in a date cell.

WEEKDAY

This function returns the day of the week for a given date. The argument tooltip defines when the week starts, with 1 being the first day of a given weekday.

DATEDIF

This function calculates the interval between two dates. The second argument specifies the type of interval, e.g., day, month, year, etc.

Lookup and Reference Functions

Sometimes we need to identify and search for a particular value in our dataset. This is when lookup and reference functions are helpful.

VLOOKUP Formulas With Examples

The excel vlookup function returns a value based on reference information presented in a vertical layout. In the example below, Columns A and B represent reference information. Columns D through F represent data we want to review.

excel vlookup formulas with examples

In Column H, we are telling Excel to use the value in E2 to find the value for H2 by looking at the information in Columns A and B. This function is one of my favorite and most useful excel functions for data analysis.

The first argument tooltip in our example is a “2.” This represents the Column B.

We have information on the revenue code (Column E) and want to return information on the revenue name (Column B).

The second argument tooltip is for Excel to identify the appropriateness of the match. “False” denotes an exact match, while “True” denotes an appropriate match. We want an exact match for this scenario.

INDEX MATCH FUNCTION IN EXCEL

The excel index function can take two forms. The first form is a reference where users instruct Excel to return values in a table based on headings. The argument first identifies the values in the table (B3:F8 in the example below).

The first argument tooltip identifies the row number within the table of inquiry (4 for April and 5 for May, respectively) and the third tooltip identifies the column within the table of inquiry (1 for Dept_01 and 2 for Dept_02, see the below screenshot on how to calculate index in excel.

how to calculate index in excel

The array form returns the entire row or column of table. Note, it is important to first select the cells you want to contain the returned values (in the example below, B11:F11 were selected as the formula was entered).

The argument first identifies the values in the table (B3:F8). The first tooltip identifies the row of inquiry (3 for March).

The following argument tooltip references the column from the reference to which Excel should return (0 for no columns). Note to run the function in array form for a selected group of cells, click Ctrl + Shift + Enter to return values and not Enter.

excel index match multiple criteria

GETPIVOTDATA

To avoid copying and pasting information from a pivot table, this function helps to return values using appropriate commands. The example below shows the level of details that can be captured using this function. In the first example, we are identifying the grand total of revenues from the pivot table.

To do so, the first argument is the data field of inquiry where the data we want is contained, e.g. “Sum of Revenues ($000).

The first tooltip is the reference cell in the PivotTable to help determine which report to Excel should pull from (this is especially useful when you are entering this function in one worksheet and have multiple PivotTable reports in the workbook.)

The second example builds off of the first, but wants to identify the total for February. This requires additional tooltips on the field name (Month), which is field heading in original dataset, and the actual item name (February).

The third example is more specific than the second and contains additional tooltips to identify sales tax revenues in March. Other tooltips for field name (Source) and item (Sales Tax) is included.

index vs vlookup

Text Functions

Text functions are helpful when we seek to only get a portion of the information contained within a cell or we are trying to combine information contained in multiple cells.

LOWER, UPPER, and PROPER

Formatting can be an issue when exporting data. Information may be in upper cases, lower cases, or a combination of both. To make clean tables and charts can require formatting or use of the following functions:

✓ LOWER – This function returns text values in a cell in all lower case.
✓ UPPER – This function returns text values in a cell in all upper case.
✓ PROPER – This function returns text values in a cell with the each of the first word capitalized.

CONCATENATE

CONCATENATE is helpful to combine information contained in separate cells into one cell. The function contains arguments referencing the cells containing the information.

The example below shows how the function returns values. In the first example, first name and last name is combined, but look closely because there isn’t a space. By adding to the argument by including spaces (“ “), commas (“, “), and other desired punctuation or words (“ of “) the appropriate desired value can be returned.

LEFT, RIGHT, and MID

These functions are helpful to extract a portion of a larger string. The example below shows is an account structure. The first four digits represent the department/division. In order to retrieve the first four digits, we use the left function.

The first argument identifies the cell containing the account information (A2) and the tooltip identifies how many digits from the left do we want to extract (4).

The RIGHT function follows a similar structure. In the example below, the last 5 digits represent the object. Thus, the argument identifies the cell containing the account information (A2) and the number of digits from the right we want to extract (5).

The MID function requires more details. Similar to LEFT and RIGHT, the argument identifies the cell containing the account information (A2). The first tooltip identifies which digit to start the extraction (5 to represent the fifth digit in the account string) and second tooltip identifies the number of digits to extract (5). Commonly Used Excel Functions.

LEN and TRIM

LEN is helpful to return the length of a string in a cell. The function contains one argument and that is the cell of inquiry. Note from the example below that Excel calculates extra spaces in the string in the length number. For example, the name Eli is shown as having a length of 5 and Tina has a length of 6.

One common use of the TRIM function is to remove extra spacing. Following the example above, the TRIM function is used below to remove the extra spacing, which shortens the length of the cell. The function contains one argument and that is the cell of inquiry.

TEXT and VALUE

When exporting data, numbers can sometimes appear with formatting issues or come in as text rather than number.

TEXT converts a numeric value to text. There are also different ways users can specify the display formatting by using special format strings. 

The first example below shows a figure with many decimals, but we want only the whole number.

Thus, the TEXT function is used to identify the cell that contains the information (A2) and specifies it should be the nearest whole number (“0”). 

In the second example, the figure is 21.3, but we want it to display as a dollar value. Using the TEXT function, A3 is identified as the cell that contains the information and “$0.00” is specified as the display.

Above in A4 contains a number, but Excel recognizes it as text (a simple way to determine that Excel has identified this as text is the green triangle on the upper left corner). If the figures are recognized as text instead of numbers, then calculation and analysis cannot be performed accurately. The VALUE function contains one argument, which identifies the cell that contains the information (A4).

Logical Functions

Logical functions are useful when we are seeking to perform conditional actions or calculations.

COUNTIF FUNCTION IN EXCEL

This function counts the number of cells that meet a criterion. The two examples below show how COUNTIF operates. The argument is the range of cells that we want Excel to review. The tooltip specifies the criterion, e.g. code 100 and vendor ABC, respectively.

SUMIF
This function sums the values in a range that meet criteria specified. The two examples below show how SUMIF operates. The first part of the argument is the range of cells we want evaluated based on our criteria. The first tooltip is the criteria itself, e.g. code 100 and vendor ABC, respectively. The following tooltip is the range of cells for Excel to perform the summarization function, e.g., amount in both instances.

IF
If statements are helpful to return one value if the statement is true and another if the statement is false. In the example below, we are comparing the payment amount (C2:C7) to the invoice amount (B2:B7). If the payment amount is greater than the invoice amount, then Excel returns a value of “Overpayment.” If the payment amount is not less than the invoice amount, then Excel Commonly Used Excel Functions return a value of “Not Overpayment.”

Please note the attention to the value we selected to return if the statement is false because the logic statement is also capturing instances where the payment amount equals the invoice amount (Rows 3 and 6).

AND
Similar to if statements, the AND function returns a value of “TRUE” if the statement is true and “FALSE” if the statement is false. The function tests multiple criteria. In the example below, the statement is testing two criteria. The first is whether there has been an underpayment (Column E is less than Column C) and whether the payment took more than 30 days from time of invoice (Column D minus Column B is greater than 30). Both conditions must be true in order for Excel to return the value “TRUE.” If only one of the conditions is true, either there is an underpayment or payment took over 30 days from time of invoice, then Excel returns the value “FALSE.”

OR

This function tests multiple logic criteria and returns a value of “TRUE” if one criterion is true. The example below is similar to the one for the AND function. However, if one of the conditions, e.g., underpayment (Column E is less than Column C) or payment taking more than 30 days from time of invoice (Column D minus Column B is greater than 30), is met, then Excel returns the value “TRUE.” If both conditions are not met, then Excel returns the value “FALSE.”

Shortcuts
Formatting Shortcut Name
Keystrokes
Purpose
Border
Ctrl+Shift+7
Places border around selected cell(s)
Remove Border
Ctrl+Shift+–
Removes border around selected cell(s)
Clear
Alt+H+E
Opens clear editing features. Keying additional letters will perform the functions listed below:
Paste Special
Ctrl+C, Alt+H+V
Opens paste special features Keying additional letters as indicated in the underlined word performs the functions listed below:
Change Font Size
Alt+H+F+S
Goes to font size dropdown
Format Cell
Ctrl+1
Opens format cell window
Group rows or columns
Alt+A+G+G or Shift+Alt+→
Opens group window



Ungroup rows or columns
Alt+A+U+U or Shift+Alt+←
Ungroups grouped rows or columns
Highlight Row
Shift+Spacebar
Selects entire row 

According to Microsoft Official blog, the INDEX function applies to the following  versions of Ms Excel:

Excel 2016, Excel 2013, Excel 2010, Excel 2007, Excel 2016 for Mac, Excel for Mac 2011, Excel Online Excel for iPad, Excel for iPhone, Excel for Android tablets, Excel for Android phones, Excel Mobile, Excel Starter 2010 Less.

This really are most commonly used excel functions and formula and examples.

Hope you enjoyed the article? Do share with friends and leave your comments if any questions.
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Management is the process of developing an organization’s resources to achieve specific aims through the functions of planning, leading and controlling. In other words, management deals with how we can utilize available resources to achieve planned objectives or goals.

This article highlights some basic steps you need to follow so that you can manage several businesses successfully with ease.

Management
From the above definition and illustrations of management, the following features are important:
  • Organizing: organizing means allocating work to people and directing their doing so that the objectives of the business can be proficient.
  • Control: this involves making sure that people carry out directives according to plan.
  • Leading: it refers to the way in which mangers help their employees or assistants to achieve certain goals of the business.
  • Planning: this is mainly concerned with setting objectives and devising the necessary course of action to achieve these objectives.
And that is why business management is considered a good major processes for every organization or a business firm.

The Functions of Management In a Business
The main functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

Planning Process In General Management
Planning is significant because it helps in the establishment and completion of objectives; provides performance standards that facilitate control; reduces uncertainty by anticipating changes; gives a focus and sense of direction to the business; helps n the allocation and utilization of business resources, and precedes the execution of all other managerial functions.

Here are some of the process involved in management planning, guide here would make you not to ask how does one create a business plan? Below are some of the things you need to know.

i. Identify opportunities and threats;
ii. Formulate objectives;
iii. Make assumptions and draw up plans of action accordingly;
iv. Identify alternative plans of actions;
v. Analyze and consider alternative plans of actions;
vi. Choose a final plan;
vii. Draw up a budget;
viii. Implement and evaluate the plan.

Kinds of Plans In Management
Plans can be branded into the following Kinds:
  1. Time prospect: in this case plans are classified on the basis of the time factor. On the basis of the time factor, we have long-term plans, medium-term plans, and short-term plans.
  2. Level of management: the types of plans according to levels of management are strategic plans, functional or tactical plans, and operational plans.
  3. Continuity basis: by this, we are referring to whether the plans will continuously be used or whether the plans will be used just once.
  4. Functional plans: these are the types of plans according to the functional areas of business.

Advantages of a Good Plan In Management
A good plan must have some the following advantages:
i. A good plan must be realistic
ii. Must be futuristic
iii. Must be goal – oriented
iv. Must be considerate in the course of action
v. Must be flexible in nature.

Disadvantages to Effective Planning In Management
Here are some of the stumbling blocks to effective planning
i. Rigidity of plan
ii. Wrong timing
iii. The poor inspiration of workers
iv. Environmental factors
v. Inadequate resources.

Organizing Method In Management
Organizing is the management purpose by means of which a business structure is well-known through the distribution of responsibilities, the allocation of resources and the coordination of activities to achieve the objectives of the business.

Leading Process Of Management
Leading is the management function which monitors the people within an organization in such a way that they will cooperate or work together towards the accomplishment of the goals of the business as efficiently as possible.

Management Control
Control is the formation of accurate standards against which the actual act of the employees and the business can be measured and, whereby, any abnormalities from the business’s standards can be detected in good time it entails verifying whether instructions are carried out according to plan.


General Management Control processes
Control process involves the following steps:
  1. Calculating the actual performance
  2. Taking remedial action
  3. Assessing and comparing actual performance against set standards

Principles of effective Control In Management
  1. It must be understandable
  2. It must be elastic
  3. It must be correct and timely
  4. It must be economical

Other Management Tasks are as follows:

Motivation: it is the procedure in which a general manager or a businessman encourages the employees that they should voluntarily do their work as well as possible. Motivation is a driving force that grows spontaneously in a person and managers must strive to the ways they do.

Delegation: it is the process whereby tasks are allotted to assistants or employees with the needed authority and duty to enable them to do the tasks.

Discipline: Discipline forms the conduct of employees so that their behavior helps to ensure the successful acts of the business.

Communication: people can only exist within the framework or social institutions and through contact and interaction with other people. This interaction takes place by means of communication. Communication is the transfer of messages between the business and its internal and external environment.

Coordination: it is the process in which the numerous business tasks or activities are treated as a functional unit so that the objectives of the business can be successfully achieved.

Principles of Management
A principle is an important fact. Principles of management are the important facts which guide the activities and processes of an organization. They are guidelines that guide the actions of and decisions of managers in their bid to utilize business resources to achieve stated organizational goals.

The principles are as follows:
  1. Discipline: members of the organization should respect the rules and agreements that govern the organization.
  2. Authority: managers should have the right to give orders and exact compliance.
  3. Division of labor: functions should be separated into areas of concentration in such a way that one worker performs one activity.
  4. Order: materials and people should be placed and maintained in their proper location.
  5. Equity: a manager should treat employees and peers with respect and justice. Managers should be fair and just to all workers.
  6. Stability of tenure: workers should be sure of maintaining their jobs for a reasonable period of time.
  7. Initiative: assistants should be given the liberty to perceive and carry out their policies within the bounds of their delegated authority and defined jobs, even though some errors may result.

Levels of Management
Basically, there are three levels of management in any organization, namely top-level management, middle-level management, and first-level or lower-level management.

i. Top-level management: managers at this level are responsible for the overall management of the organization; they establish operating policies and guide the organization’s interaction with its external environment. They make key decisions and long-term plans for the organization. Examples of top-level managers are:
a. Managing director;
b. Chief executive officer;
President’
c. General manger;
d. Chairman, the board of directors’
e. Non-executive directors, etc.

ii. Middle-level management: managers at this level are at the midrange of the organizational ladder; they are answerable to other managers and sometimes for some operational employees; the report to more senior managers; they express departmental purposes, rules and plans; they link management decisions and policies to their assistants; and carry out key decisions of the top-level managers. Examples of middle-level managers are:
a. Marketing manager;
b. Production manager;
c. Chief accountant;
d. Chief engineer;
e. Administrative manager, etc.

iii. First-level management: managers at this level are responsible for the work of operating employees only and do not supervise other managers; they are “first” or lowest level managers in the organizational hierarchy; they plan for the day-to-day operations and assign personnel to specific jobs;

Roles of a Manager
In other to successfully deliberate on the roles of a manager, we will love to discuss who a manager is and what he does?

A manager is a person at any level of the organization who guides the labors of their people in accomplishing goals. He is the person who is responsible for making decisions concerning the use of business properties to achieve results.

He is also a substance that makes things happen and the vigorous, life-giving element in every business, without his governance, the resources can never become production.

He launches goals, plans operations, arranges various resources (personnel, materials, equipment, capital, information, time, etc.) leads and motivates people to accomplish, evaluates actual results against the set objectives, and improves people for the organization.

A role is defined as an organized set of behaviors belonging to an identifiable office or position. Roles are those behaviors that can be attributed to managerial position or job. That is the behavioral patterns that managers are expected to display within the unit they are to function.

The roles of a manager are broadly divided into three (3) groups, namely:
  • Interpersonal roles: these are the dealings that managers have with other people as a result of their status and position.
  • Informational roles: these relay to the sources and note of information which result from manager’s interpersonal roles.
  • Decisional roles: these include making organizational choices on the basis of mangers’ status and power, and access to information.

Managerial Skills
What is a skill?

A skill is an ability to do something well. Managerial skills, therefore, are the abilities of managers to utilize business resources efficiently and effectively in order to achieve stated organizational goals. Though skills are important at all levels of management they are more important at one level than the other. For example, the significance of the technical skill diminishes as the manager climbs up the ladder and vice versa and also the significance of the conceptual skill diminishes as the manager climbs down the ladder and vice versa.

At this juncture, we are going to be outlining three (3) managerial skills namely;
  • Technical skill: it refers to the capability of a manager to use a particular information, devices, procedures, and techniques in a specialized arena.
  • Human skill: this refers to the ability of a manager to work with, comprehend, encourage and get along with others.
  • Conceptual skill: this also refers to the ability of a manager to recognize the difficulties of the overall organization and how each department or unit fits into the organization.
Every business needs good management in order to grow above its competitors and achieve its main goal.

If you have any suggestion, contribution to management, please do not hesitate to use the comment box below. Thanks for reading.